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Wikiwurdboek:International Phonetic Alphabet

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The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. It is intended as a notational standard for the phonemic and phonetic representation of all spoken languages.

The English pronunciation key shows, based on the pronunciation of English words, how to read IPA, whereas the information below is of more theoretical nature. For further information see the bottom of this page.

Consonants (Pulmonic)

  Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p    b       t    d   ʈ    ɖ c    ɟ k    ɡ q    ɢ     ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n   ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ  
Trill ʙ   r         ʀ    
Tap or Flap     ɾ̪ ɾ   ɽ          
Lateral Tap or Flap     ɺ            
Fricative ɸ    β f    v θ    ð s    z ʃ    ʒ ʂ    ʐ ç    ʝ x    ɣ χ    ʁ ħ    ʕ h    ɦ
Lateral Fricative     ɬ    ɮ            
Approximant   ʋ   ɹ   ɻ j ɰ      
Lateral Approximant   l   ɭ ʎ ʟ    
  • Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
  • Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial click ɓ Bilabial voiced implosive ʼ For example:
ǀ Dental click ɗ Dental/alveolar voiced implosive Bilabial ejective
ǃ (Post)alveolar click ʄ Palatal voiced implosive Dental/alveolar ejective
ǂ Palatoalveolar click ɠ Velar voiced implosive Velar ejective
ǁ Alveolar lateral click ʛ Uvular voiced implosive Alveolar fricative ejective


Front N.-front Central N.-back Back
  • Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Symbols

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative
w Voiced labial-velar approximant
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative
ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive
ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
  • Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary:
    k͡p   t͡s


ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
˘ Extra-short
. Syllable break
ǀ Minor (foot) group
ǁ Major (intonation) group
Linking (absence of a break)

Tones & Word Accents



Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊
 ̥ Voiceless  ̤ Breathy voiced  ̪ Dental
 ̬ Voiced  ̰ Creaky voiced  ̺ Apical
ʰ Aspirated  ̼ Linguolabial  ̻ Laminal
˒ More rounded ʷ Labialized  ̃ Nasalized
˓ Less rounded ʲ Palatalized Nasal release
˖ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
˗ Retracted ˁ Pharyngealized  ̚ No audible release
 ̈ Centralized  ̴ Velarized or pharyngealized
 ̽ Mid-centralized  ̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
ˌ Syllabic  ̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
 ̯ Non-syllabic  ̘ Advanced Tongue Root
˞ Rhoticity  ̙ Retracted Tongue Root
  ͍ Labial Spreading   ͈ Strong Articulation   ͊ Denasal
  ͆ Dentolabial   ͉ Weak Articulation   ͋ Nasal Escape
 ̪͆ Interdental/Bidental \ Reiterated Articulation   ͌ Velopharyngeal Friction
 ̳ Alveolar   ͎ Whistled Articulation  ↓ Ingressive Airflow
 ̼ Linguolabial   ͢ Sliding Articulation  ↑ Egressive Airflow

See also